Essentially, all cameras have the same components. In it's most basic form a camera is simply a light-tight box with a means of projecting an image on the inside of the box (in other words, a lens). The simplest camera would perhaps be a homemade pinhole camera, a light-tight box with a small pinhole acting as a lens.
There are a number of different cameras, however they can all be classified as one of four types of cameras:
- SLR (Single Lens Reflex) Cameras
- TLR (Twin Lens Reflex) Cameras
- Rangefinder Cameras
- View Cameras
Within these four there a number of variations to accommodate different film sizes and varying levels of complexity.